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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology

Volume 2 Issue 8 (August 2016)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Schiff Bases as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel in HCl Solution

Authors : Nashwan O. Tapabashi

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Six well known Schiff bases as inhibitors for the corrosion of carbon steel in HCl solution have been investigated. A detailed behavior of the Schiff bases as corrosion inhibitors were tabulated. It was shown that the efficiency of the Schiff bases is strongly correlated with their resistance towards hydrolysis in acidic medium. The effect of variables on corrosion rates and inhibition efficiencies were studied. In all cases, the optimum conditions for satisfactory inhibition of corrosion have been recorded in 6N HCl solution.

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2

Title : Attached Media Performance in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment: Zenein Pilot Plant

Authors : Dalia Hamed, Ibrahim H Mustafa, Gamal Ibrahim, Ahmed Ahwany, Said Elnashaie

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Starting to use most recent methods, ideas and equipments of existing waste water treatment plant has become a demand, mostly in the developing countries. The high population, bordered financial resources and area availability need hard treated effluent quality to protect water resources. Hybrid systems could be considered as a suitable alternative. It is a conventional activated sludge treatment system and considered one of the recently tried approaches to improve the performance of the biological treatment through increasing the volume of the accumulated bio-mass in terms of attached growth as well as suspended growth.  Moreover, the domestic wastewater could be easily mixed with a high strength non-hazardous industrial wastewater and treated together in these reactors if there is a need. The wastewater characteristics such Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Ammonia (NH3) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) are measured. The system will satisfy COD, BOD, and TSS removal and possible, Nitrification / De-nitrification activities by controlling the bio-mass concentration in both suspended and attached forms. In addition, high rate of loading either hydraulic or organic could be achieved. A pilot plant for such treatment system was built at Zenein wastewater treatment plant south to Cairo for treating the primary effluent from the primary settling tanks. The main objectives of the proposed study are to assess treatment and wastewater characteristics. A mathematical model simulating the bioreactor will be developed later (not included in this paper).  Based on the results, design criteria of a full-scale plant could be developed. The  wastewater  concentration  (COD), (BOD), (NH3) and (TSS) were  measured  and  the  removal  efficiencies  were estimated too for both activated sludge and attached growth process. This would be a step ahead to apply this for full-scale plant considering all advantages and disadvantages of the results of the proposed pilot study. The goal of this study was to figure wastewater characteristics if the attached media introduced to the bioreactor (plastic media). So the Zenien pilot-scale attached growth bioreactor system is used. All results are completely descriptive and experimental data from the Zenein Pilot Plant. No calculations are needed in this study. Performance was based on water quality testing (BOD, COD, NH3, and TSS). The bioreactor systems were more effective with attached media than conventional activated sludge process and significantly improve the overall efficiency and the characteristic of the wastewater. Also this study showed that using of two reactors in series with media produced treated water with better results than conventional activated sludge process but nearly the same if only one reactor with plastic media existed. In presence of plastic media using one reactor, the % COD removal increased from 74% (no media used at the same flow rate) to about 88%. % BOD removal increased from 72% to above 86%. %TSS removal increased from 69% up to 89% and % NH3 removal was almost constant. In presence of two reactors in series with plastic media, the % COD removal slightly increased from 88% to about 90% (using one reactor with plastic media at the same flow rate). % BOD removal increased from 86% to above 90%. % TSS removal increased from 89% up to 91% and % NH3 removal was almost constant. Using the plastic as the attached media in one bioreactor improves the percentage efficiency removal of the pollutants. Putting two bioreactors of plastic media in series don’t increase wastewater removal performance.  For new installations, attached systems will generally require less volume and therefore have less capital cost than a conventional activated sludge system. These systems require little or no additional operational costs or operating staff over existing systems. However, the need for oxygen supply remains. Dispersed systems require expenditures for additional components, such as media-retaining sieves and/or pumps for regeneration. This study showed that it is possible to design, build and operate small and decentralized treatment systems by using readily available packing materials and with minimum wastewater pretreatment.

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3

Title : Experimental Investigation to Optimize Process Parameters in Drilling Operation for Composite Materials

Authors : G.Srikanth Reddy, Ranjith Kumar

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This paper discusses the influence of cutting parameters in drilling of carbon fiber reinforced composites. Experiments are conducted to study the effect of point angle, spindle speed and feed rate on Material Removal Rates. Theoretical calculations are done to calculate thrust force and torque. The work piece and tool assembly are modeled in Pro-Engineer. The input parameters considered are;6.5mm and 10.2mm diameter drill bits with 118° and 120° point angles, spindle speeds 1000rpm, 1500rpm & 2000rpm, feed rate 30mm/min. Different combinations of the above parameters are considered to get the maximum value of MRR. Structural analysis is done on the assembly to verify the stresses for different materials like Mild Steel, Aluminum alloy and Carbon fiber reinforced composites.

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4

Title : Linear and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Nematic Liquid Crystal Thin Film

Authors : Abdulazeez O. Mousa, Yaseen H. Kadhim, Ban A. Naser

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The linear and nonlinear optical properties of  nematic liquid crystal thin film has been found, using a highly sensitive method known as Z-Scan technique. Z-Scan experiment was performed using a continuous wave (CW) diode solid state laser at 473 nm wavelength, and 20 mW power, the first part has been done using a close aperture, and the second part was carried out using an open aperture . The sample were prepared on glass substrates by  using spin coating method. Several testing were done to study the characteristics of the sample, including X-ray diffraction, as well as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Results suggest that nematic liquid crystal thin film is a promising material for third order nonlinear applications due to its large nonlinear optical properties.

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5

Title : Armament projects: The Japanese F- 4 case, 1960 to1990. Technology transfer in the Cold War era in the Pacific Region

Authors : Dimitrios Ziakkas

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Several studies in the past focused on the U.S. effort to promote Japan’s economic reconstruction after the Second World War. This presentation as a much larger analysis of the connection between American economic and security policies at the Cold War’s height, the origins of Japan’s post - war economic success, and the character of the relationship between the United States and Japan since 1945 focuses on the military aviation projects and transfer of technology. Drawing upon the rich archival record now open to researchers, I argue here that U.S. national security policies and the escalating Cold War played a larger role in promoting Japanese economic welfare and in forging the pattern of post war economic integration and conflict between Japan and the United States. In other terms describes the military – industrial complex to U.S.A – Japan, via the F-4 project.

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6

Title : Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cat-Tail Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composite

Authors : Jaligari Narsaiah, K.V.S. Phani

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Composite material is a combination of two or more materials/fibers prepared to improve the desired mechanical and chemical properties. Composite materials are widely used in many light weight and high strength application because of their excellent directional oriented properties. Economy and heavy strength of these composites make them to be used in many applications.  Conventional fiber reinforcement has high strength and durability, which are not eco-friendly and biodegradable.  Natural fiber have high strength, eco-friendly, biodegradable and recyclable. So, natural fibers have more advantage over conventional fiber in this regard. In this project an attempt has been made to fabricate a natural composite with unsaturated polyester resin. The reinforcement consists of cat-tail fiber; Tensile and flexural properties are evaluated as per ASTM standards of D 5083-02 and 790-03. The samples were prepared with various fiber volumes. It was found that the tensile strength improved by increasing the fiber volume content. Tensile strength was upto 109.83 Mpa. Flexural strength was maximum with fiber volume ratio of the order 9820.8 Mpa.

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7

Title : Designation of Magnetic Valve Actuator in Electromagnetic-Clutch-By-Wire

Authors : Yunchao Yin, Jinyu Qu, Pan Zhang, Shenchao Zhu

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Magnetic value’s construction parameters are designed basing on the working character and working principal of electromagnetic-clutch-by-wire. And the simulation result, which is calculated by the shifting time model, established in MATLAB/Simulink, shows that the transmission-by-wire’s shifting time satisfied the requirement of automatic transmission.

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8

Title : Research and Simulation Analysis of Optimizing Dynamic Performance Shift Schedule for Transmission-By-Wire in Electric Vehicle

Authors : Shenchao Zhu, Jinyu Qu, Yunchao Yin, Pan Zhang

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The shift schedule of automatic transmission is the core technology of control system, the selection of control parameters directly influences the dynamic performance, fuel economy and the driving range of the vehicle. In this paper we studied the optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule for the three-geared transmission-by-wire. The developing method for the optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule was analyzed, and the shifting process model is set up in Matlab/Simulink. The optimizing dynamic performance shift schedule curve is developed for three-geared transmission-by-wire which could improve the performance of electric vehicle, so as to achieve the purpose of saving energy and increasing the driving range.

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9

Title : An In Vitro Comparison of Air-abrasion and Drill Influence on Dentin Surface

Authors : Helena Gronwald, Petr Louda, Lukas Volesky, Pavel Kejzlar, Mateusz Fijalkowski, Zbigniew Rozek, Damian Batory, Pablo Serrano-Fernandez, Krystyna Opalko, Danuta Lietz-Kijak

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Objectives: A water - air abrasion is one of the dentine preparation  method  and  provides an alternative to the classic drill preparation. The examined null hypothesis was: there are no differences in geometric structure and wettability of dentin surface after water-air-abrasion and drill preparation. Material and methods: Twenty, for orthodontic reasons, extracted molars were selected for the study. The residual half of the same tooth were qualified into two groups: A - elaborated with the water-air sandblaster Aquacut Quattro; D – elaborated with drill. These prepared 20 sets of corresponding teeth half were subject of profilometric and wettability tests. The prepared dentin surface ware scanned with with FE SEM ULTRA plus (field emission scanning electron microscope, Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, Germany). Obtained values of profilometric parameters Ra, Rq, Rp, Rq, Rsk, Rt, Rv and surface development were analyzed. Dentine surface wettability measuring was performed with the System See E (Advex Instruments, Czech Republic). Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA for repeated measures. Results: Between group A and D we observed statistically significant differences in Rsk (skewness) parameter indicating that the valleys dominate in samples from group A, and peaks in samples from group D. The degree of development of the surface was statistically significant higher for dentin prepared with sandblasting. Samples from group D showed trend of lower wettability than samples of group A. Conclusion: The surface of dentin after sandblasting is more-developed and this feature can positively influence the greater capacity to maintain the liquid on the surface.

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10

Title : Influence of Substrate Temperature on Electrical Properties of PbO Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Authors : Abdulazeez O. Mousa, Ali F. Marmoss

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Nanostructured of (PbO) thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique at a different substrate temperatures (200, 250, 300, 350, 400,  450) ̊ C . The films deposited were 177 nm thickness. It has been making electrical measurements such as D.C conductivity and, Hall effect for all films. The results showed that the conductivity of (PbO) increasing from [ 75.37 x 10-4 (Ω.cm)-1] to [ 339.99x10-4 (Ω.cm)-1] with increasing of substrate temperatures, as well as the results showed throughout the study that all films have tow activation energy and this energy increase with increasing of substrate temperatures. We noticed from the Hall effect measurements  that the films have a negative Hall coefficient. This mean that the type of conducting (n–type charge carriers).

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11

Title : MgxZnO1-x photodetector grown by chemical spraying pyrolysis technique

Authors : Abdulazeez O. Mousa, Saleem H. Trier

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In this research was prepared MgxZnO1-x/n-Si photodetector by using chemical spraying pyrolysis (CSP) technique, and different proportions volumetric ofMg-contents (0,30,50,70,and 90)%,at a temperature of (450)°C, were constant thickness by fixing a number sprinkles and was thickness of all films ranges between(80±5)nm, nitrogen gas under pressure (4.5) bar was used. The crystal structure was examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that all the films of polycrystalline. As was studied the topography of the surface of the films by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), where decreases grain size with adding  Mg-content. As well as that add MgO in the films lead to a decrease in surface roughness. Also, (EDS) showed that the films contain elements (Si, N, O, Zn, and Mg) as expected. As were studied topography of the surface of the films by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and showed that the grain size of the ZnO nanostructure depends on the ratio of     Mg-content of volumetric, where decreases the grain size with increasing Mg-content. As well as the increase in the proportion of Mg-content in the films lead to a decrease in surface roughness. In this work we studied the spectral properties of the  MgxZnO1-x/n-Si photodetector, and found that the values of the spectral response, quantum efficiency, and specific detectivity increases and shift toward the wavelengths higher. While the equivalent power of the noise increases randomly, with increase  Mg-content.

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12

Title : The C-V and I-V properties of MgxZnO1-x/n-Si heterojunction

Authors : Abdulazeez O. Mousa, Saleem H. Trier

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In this paper was prepared MgxZnO1-x/n-Si  heterojunction  by using a chemical spraying pyrolysis (CSP) technique is an easy and convenient way of deposition over large areas. Water used Zn acetate Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O as a source of ZnO and Mg acetate and water Mg(CH3COO)2.4H2O as a source MgO. The grow mixed solutions MgxZnO1-x different proportions volumetric (0,30,50,70,and 90)% and clean and heated at temperature (450) °C was installed thickness by installing a number of sprays. The thickness of the films between all(80 ±5) nm was used as a gas holder nitrogen electrical properties of MgxZnO1-x/n-Si heterojunciton was studied. The results showed that theMgxZnO1-x/n-Si heterojunciton abrupt type, through measurements (C-V), and increasing width of depletion region with increase the Mg-ctent in films. The electrical properties included on the (C-V) and (I-V) measurements. The built in potential (Vbi) was determined, it was increased with Mg-content increase.

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