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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology

Volume 1 Issue 2 (August)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : On the burning of gas in a bubble

Authors : Voronin D.V.

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The problem on dynamics of hot gas bubble in a cold liquid was numerically solved. The model is based on two-dimensional laws of conservation for mass, pulse  and energy in case of axial symmetry. The effects of gas turbulence were considered in the model as well. Processes of viscosity, heat conductivity, diffusion of substance, evaporation of a liquid on interface border were taken into account in the paper. The gas in a bubble is assumed to be compressible. The heat flux from the bubble into surrounding cold water was described in the model. The formulated problem with the stated boundary conditions was solved numerically by method of individual particles , which is updating of a method Harlow of particles in cells. The non-uniform numerical grid with a condensation near to an axis of symmetry was used. The computation algorithm provided a condensation of the grid in areas with the large gradients of parameters. Number of particles in cells is variable. The numerical algorithm provides an opportunity of association and splitting of individual particles belonging to the same body, depending on the current parameters of the medium. The maximal number of particles in a cell is equal to seven. The non-stationary fields of the basic thermodynamic parameters of gas within a bubble have been computed. It was found, that the pressure of gas in the bubble has the expressed tendency to recession, though at the initial moments of time its short-term increase is possible. 

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2

Title : Microbial Insecticides- An Ecofriendly Effective Line of Attack for Insect Pests Management

Authors : Muhammad Sarwar

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This paper outlines the existing formal familiarity on the possible usage of microbial insecticides in control of global insect pests. On agricultural and horticultural crops, the several insects species are common, and economically important pests are apparently colonized by microbes called entomopathogens. Essential groups of microbes that parasitize insects are the bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes and protozoa, which have been used to control insect pests in the field. Microbial control of insects is achieved through the inundative application of allowable formulations of insect pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis), insect pathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana), insect viruses (nuclear polyhedrosis and granulosis), nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) or protozoan (Nosema locustae). The potential benefits to agriculture and public health through the use of microbial insecticides are considerable owing to the interest based on the drawbacks associated with chemical pesticides. Microbial insecticides are available for treatment of soil, foliar and postharvest pathogens, pest nematodes, herbivorous insects, structural pests, and weeds. Any insect pathogens release metabolites, a wide array of toxins and molecules that induce changes in or modify behavior to increase the chance of insect’s death. They are generally less destructive to beneficials, cause less environmental pollution and are less acutely toxic to mammals than conventional pesticides. The quality of commercially available biocontrol agents is an important consideration. The most important single requirement for the production of microbial insecticides is a supply of reproducible, reliable and authentic cultures of the microorganism. Mass production of the selected microbial agents is a necessary prerequisite for any large-scale field application, and the methodology involved has been developed at an early stage to suit a number of different pests pathogen situations. Biological and microbial control agents are living organisms, and must not be mishandled during shipping, storage, or application. Expectedly, the new research achievements in the field of microbes might announce a future microbial insecticides era, with a new generation of broad spectrum entomopathogens.

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3

Title : Biopesticides: An Effective and Environmental Friendly Insect-Pests Inhibitor Line of Action

Authors : Muhammad Sarwar

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From immemorial time, agriculture has been fronting the damage happenings of abundant pests including insects, which is results an essential reduction in crop yield. Pest management approach, method and discipline have experienced over time developments and advancements to minimize environmental impact. For that reason, there is a necessity to progress biopesticides, which are efficient, ecofriendly and do not consent any destructive consequence on atmosphere. This review exemplifies some of selected illustrations of case studies on the current deployment of biopesticides in pest management package. Biopesticides are contraction of biological pesticides, which include several types of pest management interventions through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term biopesticides has been historically associated with biological control by implication and the manipulation of living organisms. But, regulatory positions can be influenced by public perceptions wherein biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria and certain minerals. Frequently, biopesticides  have no harmful residues detected, can be cheaper than chemical pesticides when locally produced and may be more effective than chemical pesticides in the long-term and are biodegradable. Three major classes of biopesticides are available such as microbial pesticides consisting of entomopathogenic bacteria (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis), fungi (e.g., Trichoderma spp.), or viruses (e.g., Baculovirus) including their metabolites sometimes, entomopathogenic nematodes and protozoa. Bioal pesticides i.e., herbal pesticides (intrinsic unique and diverse array of chemical complex structure in different plant species) provide efficient protection from the pests and microbial diseases, and plant incorporated protectants (i.e., genetically modified crops like transgenic Bt cotton) though their use as food items is debatable. Biopesticides can be applied through introductions, augmentative releases, inundatively, or through conserving existing field populations of natural pest control agents. Optimistically, further sensible tactic can be progressively implemented towards biopesticides in the nearby upcoming time and temporary incomes from chemical pesticides should not limit the destiny of biopesticides. Biopesticides can be used as part of an overall integrated pest management suite to reduce the legal, environmental and public safety hazards of chemical residues, and inexpensive alternative to some insecticides.

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4

Title : Assessment of Thyroid Radiation Doses Due To Various Iodine Radionuclides Released From Triga Mark II Research Reactor Accident

Authors : M. M. Ali, M. M. Zaman, M. S. Hossain, M. A. Zaman, A. S. Mollah

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In the present work, the whole body external dose due to various iodine radionuclides for hypothetical reactor accident is calculated. Aiming to get the dose, calculations have also been done for core inventory, source term, and atmospheric dispersion factor. In this work, Pasquill-Gifford stability classification has been employed to consider stability class around the TRIGA reactor site. Six weather categories, designated from A to F are defined in order of increasing atmospheric stability and the site is found to be “B” according to the stability classification. A computer program named ‘RaDARRA’ has been developed in the present work for the calculation. The objective of this study is to assess thyroid doses due to various iodine radionuclides  such as, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I and 135I  at different distance from the reactor site for hypothetical research reactor accident. The largest contributors to the thyroid doses are 133I and 131I. 

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5

Title : Application of dominant frequency for nonlinear dynamic analysis of embankment during an earthquake

Authors : Behrouz Gordan, Azlan Adnan

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In terms of embankment analysis, huge damages were reported in embankments under strong earthquakes. Due to nonlinear dynamic analysis of embankment during an earthquake, one of the main factors is dominant frequency. Based on technology development using finite element programs, numerical methods were used to assess frequency. The aim of this study is evaluation of dominant frequency in the embankment for different situations such as configuration and soil properties. For this purpose, Ansys13 program based on Finite-Element Method (FEM) was applied to compute dominant frequency using modal analysis. Response spectrum analysis and nonlinear analysis are belonging to the dominant frequency. This paper presents two main purposes. Both effects such material property and dam configuration on dominant frequency were investigated in this study. The amplitude of dam height was in the range of 30 meter to 90 meter. As a result, dominant frequency curve were plotted for different condition to use. They were very applicable for spectrum analysis and computing the Rayleigh damping coefficient in terms of nonlinear dynamic analysis. Consequently, the low impact was found on dominant frequency by using both parameters such as different slopes and Poisson's ratio. The major effects were subjected to structural height, elasticity modulus, and relative density, respectively.

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6

Title : Information on Activities Regarding Biochemical Pesticides: An Ecological Friendly Plant Protection against Insects

Authors : Muhammad Sarwar

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Although there is still much work to be done in the field of pest control, however, the insect pests management technologies and information have reached well beyond our thoughts. There are some interesting developments in pesticides technology resulting in the flush of greener products and among these are existences of biochemical pesticides. The goal of this paper is to emphasis on the use of reduced-risk chemicals for insect pests controlling needs as alternatives to riskier conventional pesticides. The reduced risk designation can be applied only to certain uses of a particular chemical such as biochemical pesticides that are naturally occurring and control pests through non-toxic routes. Examples of biochemical pesticides categories are semiochemicals (chemical signals) including pheromones (acting between individuals within a species) and allelochemicals (acting between individuals of different species), hormones, plant extracts, enzymes, feeding deterrents, repellents, confusants, plant growth regulators and insect growth regulators. Pesticides to be included in these categories must be naturally occurring, or if man synthesizes such chemicals, and then these must be structurally identical to naturally occurring chemicals. Because biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring they pose much less health and environmental concerns than conventional pesticides. Methods for crop protection based on semiochemicals show advantages over methods based on conventional insecticides. Applications of semiochemicals for insect pest management however, have been limited. Some recent studies carried out in an interdisciplinary research program are presenting that in spite of the chemodiversity in nature, it is striking that many simple and common compounds are important as chemical signals. Biochemical pesticides have been expediting the review of conventional pesticides that meet certain criteria such as low toxicity to humans and nontarget organisms including fish and birds, low risk of ground water contamination or runoff, low potential for pesticide resistance, and demonstrate efficacy and compatibility with integrated pest management (IPM).

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7

Title : Sealing Performance Analysis of Rubber O-ring in Static Seal Based on FEM

Authors : Shiwei Niu

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Reliability of the system relies on the sealing performance of O-ring. Sealing performance analysis of O-ring was investigated by finite element method. Effect of medium pressure and pre compression on the sealing performance analysis of O-ring were studied. The results show that the stress distribution of O-ring is dumbbell shape when the medium pressure is 0. There are three high stress locations when the medium pressure is bigger than 1MPa. The maximum von Mises stress and contact stress increase with the increasing of medium pressure. With the increasing of pre compression quantity, the maximum von Mises stress of O-ring first decreases and then increases, While the maximum contact stress increases. Those results can provide a basis for the design and safety assessment of O-ring.

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8

Title : Numerical Simulation of Interference Assembly of Shaft and Sleeve

Authors : Siwei Niu

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In this paper, the stress and deformation of the sleeve and shaft after interference fit were investigated by finite element model. Effects of interference and sleeve's thickness on the stress and deformation of the sleeve were studied. The results show that the maximum von Mises stress, contact stress, shear stress and deformation of the sleeve appears on the two ends. The contact pressure distribution is W-shape. The maximum von Mises stress of the shaft appears in the center. The maximum von Mises stress, contact stress, shear stress and deformation of the sleeve increase with the increasing of the interference. The maximum contact stress and shear stress increase with the increasing of the wall thickness, but the deformation decreases. With the increasing of the wall thickness, von Mises stress in the middle part of the sleeve decreases, but the stresses on the two ends increase.

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9

Title : Pipe Vibration Analysis and Structural Improvements of Reciprocating Compressor

Authors : Zheng Liang, Qiangbing Dong

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Avoiding pipe vibration is an important aspect of reciprocating compressor system design. By modal analysis upon a secondary compressor inlet pipe to get the natural frequency of the pipe, using the transfer matrix method to calculate the natural frequency of the pipe column. Compared with the excitation frequency of the compressor, it reveals the cause of the pipe vibration is mainly due to the natural frequency of pipe column in the region of the compressor excitation frequency. Calculating the pipe stresses under the pulsating action of the exciting force and it far exceeds the allowable stress of pipe. By changing the secondary intake pipe length, increasing intake surge tank and theoretical analysis of the system show that changes in the structure of solution effectively avoids the resonance length of the pipe, significantly reduces the stress and vibration of the pipe. The field secondary inlet pipe of the reciprocating compressor after transformation doesn’t lead severe vibration and break accident again. It confirms the feasibility of theory study.

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10

Title : Asphalt Mixture Pure Shear Test under the Combined Effects of Freeze-thaw and Water

Authors : Wang Daozheng, Chen Xiaoqing, LI Xiaojun

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Cracking of asphalt pavement seriously affects its use function, and the temperature big change is a important factor of the asphalt pavement cracking. Although both domestic and international have carried out a lot of researches on asphalt pavement freeze-thaw damage, in the evaluation of performance index of asphalt mixture performance indicators, lots of researches didn’t consider the influence under the combined effects of freeze-thaw and water. What’s more, there is no experimental means and standards of evaluating asphalt mixture shear failure mode under the combined effects of freeze-thaw and water, so an experimental method is designed, starting pure shear tests for the asphalt mixture with different asphalt-aggregate ratio and particle size. Prepare asphalt Mixture of different asphalt-aggregate ratio and particle size. First, put specimens in a water bath at room temperature, and make specimens in the water to keep 48 hthen remove the specimen in a plastic bag, add about 10ml of water, and tie the bag, then place it in the constant temperature(-182℃) refrigerator about 16 hours., and finally place it in the constant temperature(600.5℃) bath about 24 hours. By single factor theory, starting pure shear tests for the asphalt mixture with different asphalt-aggregate ratio and particle size under the condition of the freeze-thaw and water combined. Through data analysis, obtained the evolution rule of the asphalt mixture’s shear strength and shear strain on different asphalt-aggregate ratio and particle size. Research indicates: Other conditions remain unchanged, the shear stress with asphalt mixture particle size increases, with the asphalt-aggregate ratio is increased and then decreased presentation. The results provide technical support and theoretical basis for asphalt road construction.

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11

Title : Fly ash as a Fine Aggregate Replacement in Concrete Building Blocks

Authors : Robert V. Thomas, Deepa G.Nair

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Excessive utilization of river sand as fine aggregates in building construction aggravates environmental degradation and urges the need for alternate source in the context of sustainable construction. This paper explores the feasibility of fly ash as fine aggregate replacement in the manufacture of concrete building blocks. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the strength and durability characteristics of concrete building blocks by replacing fine aggregate (river sand) with fly ash. Test results indicate significant improvement in the strength properties of fly ash building blocks compared to conventional concrete building blocks. 

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12

Title : Modal Analysis of Cylindrical Gear Based on Finite Element Model

Authors : Shiwei Niu

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In order to analysis the factors of influencing cylindrical gears natural frequency, and improve the dynamic characteristics of gear. 3D finite element model of cylindrical gear was established. Natural frequency and vibration model of the gear were studied. Effects of material and structure on the natural frequency were discussed. The results show that structure of the gear is one of the factors to influence the natural frequency. The method can be used to gear parameter design, theoretical analysis and provides reference basis for the dynamic optimization of gear.

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