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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology

Volume 1 Issue 1 (July 2015)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Effects of solvent polarity and acidity on the extraction efficiency and fatty acid compositions of oil from Nile crocodile

Authors : Yi Huang, Shengzhao Dong, Yun Liu

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Abstract :

Background: Crocodile oil extracted from the fatty tissues of crocodiles is rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which have high economic and medical values. The present study describes and compares the effects of polarity and acid of extraction solvents on the extraction efficiency and fatty acid compositions of crocodile oil extracted by six solvents extraction systems, which are the combinations of three polarity levels (75% CH2Cl2, 50% CH2Cl2 and 25% CH2Cl2) and two acidity levels (non-acidified and acidified).

Results: The oil extract was saponification with 0.5M KOH before re-suspected by n-hexane, and the fatty acid compositions of lipids was analyzed by gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that solvent polarity not acidity of six extraction solvent systems has a significant effect on the oil yield. Different solvent systems could extract an obvious different type and amount of fatty acids compositions, which consisted of long carbon chains fatty acids. Among the six solvent systems examined, 50% CH2Cl2 + 46.7% methanol without acid was the best for extraction of oils from crocodile fat. DPPH antioxidation test indicated that crocodile oil extracted by solvent systems of 50% CH2Cl2 + 46.7% methanol without acid showed higher antioxidation activity (77.5%) than oil (56.0%) extracted by petroleum ether.

Conclusions: The findings in this work are very helpful to screen the extraction solvent systems to extract the oil from crocodile organism.

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2

Title : AC Impedance Study of NiOx-GDC(1-x) Nanocomposites

Authors : A.U. Chavan, L. D. Jadhav, S. Varma, S.R. Bharadwaj

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The synthesis of nanostructured Gd doped ceria (GDC) and NiO has been reported by a simple and cost effective solution combustion method. The powders were formed at low temperature (~300°C).  The NiOx-GDC(1-x) where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6; nano-composites were formed by physical mixing of these nano powders. The grain interior charge transfer mechanism in these nano-composites was confirmed by using impedance spectroscopic measurements in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 MHz. The impedance spectroscopic measurements of the composites were examined in the temperature range100°C-600°C. The grain and grain boundary contributions to the electrical conductivity varied with the composition and temperature. The activation energies for both grain and grain boundary conductivity decreased with increase in NiO content. The study also revealed that 40 % NiO content is a percolation limit for NiO-GDC nano-composites. The effect of NiO addition on relaxation behaviour of these NiOxGDC(1-x)   nano-composites is investigated for the first time using impedance measurements.

7-12
3

Title : On Mathematical Operator Systems and applications to information technology

Authors : N. B. Okelo

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Abstract :

The study of tensor products, operator systems and spectral theory of operators form a very important focal point in functional analysis. In this paper, we give results on properties of tensor products in Hilbert spaces of operator systems and subsystems. 

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4

Title : On cloud computing and applications to IT and economics

Authors : N. B. Okelo

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 In this paper, we present results on cloud computing and its application to business and economics.

18-22
5

Title : Properties of Commutators and Schroedinger Operators and Applications to Quantum Computing

Authors : N. B. Okelo

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In this paper we study the properties of Hilbert space operators, commutatorsand Schroedinger equation. We also explore their applications in quantum physics and explain the links between the abstract mathematics and the reality in the physical sense.  

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6

Title : Thermal-mechanical Coupled Analysis of the Inner Tank of Large-scale LNG Storage Tank

Authors : Lan Zhang, Xue Yang

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Abstract :

With the development of LNG industry and the change of energy structure, large LNG storage tanks are used widely when the requirements of transportation and environmental protection are considered. So, how to ensure the safety of storage tank is very important. Mechanical properties of the inner tank of large-scale LNG storage tank directly affect the reliability of the whole tank because of it contacts with the liquid directly. Based on the finite element method, the finite element model of the inner tank was built, and its stress was analysed. The results show that the stress in the state that has no thermal coupling significantly lower than it in the state that has thermal coupling, so the temperature load is the main load of the inner tank. The stress of inner tank is controlled by the thermal expansion coefficient of material. The maximum stress of tank linearly increases with the increasing of thermal expansion coefficient and wall thickness. Those results can provide a reference for the overall design of large-scale LNG storage tank and the failure analysis.

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7

Title : Tuning of a Novel Second-order Compensator for Use with a Highly Oscillating Second-order-like Process

Authors : Galal Ali Hassaan

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Abstract :

A novel second-order compensator is presented to control one of the difficult processes having highly oscillating characteristic with maximum overshoot of above 85 %. The proposed compensator has three parameters, one of them is used to adjust the steady-state characteristics of the control system and the other two parameter are tuned to adjust the performance of the control system during step-input tracking. The compensator is tuned using MATLAB control and optimization toolboxes through using five error-based objective functions. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed compensator, it was compared with three controllers investigated before to control the same process. The proposed compensator can compete well with the other controllers and generate an overshoot free response with good transient and steady state characteristics.

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8

Title : The History of the Formation of the Greek Aviation Military Project: Technical Protocols Competition and the role of Boeing Company in the History of the Greek Air Force Military Project

Authors : Dimitrios Ziakkas

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Abstract :

(which flight has changed the world, there are still new frontiers for aviation to explore. Many issues still remain under investigation, such as how did it become possible to build protocols in the air? How have technical protocols been produced and worked in the aviation market? How has the technical-natural relationship been perceived when it came to draw and redraw agreements in the competitive international aviation military market?

 

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9

Title : Free Hydroelastic Vibrations of Hydroturbine Head Covers

Authors : T. Medvedovskaya, E. Strelnikova, K. Medvedyeva

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For the first time, a method for frequencies and form determination of hydroelastic natural oscillations of hydroturbine head covers has been developed. Eigenmodes of the structure oscillations in fluid were investigated as a series in terms of vibration eigenmodes in vacuum. Hydroelasticity problem solving was obtained by making use of singular integral equations and a finite element method. A numerical analysis was carried out.

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10

Title : Occurrence of Seed borne Fungal pathogens in popular cultivars of Green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)

Authors : D. H. Tandel, A. N. Sabalpara, R.C.Patel, V.R. Patel

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Abstract :

Seven genera of fungi which included Macrophomina sp. (4 to 20%), Curvularia sp. (4-12%), Aspergillus sp.(12-28%), Alternaria sp. (4-20%), Rhizopus sp. (0-8%), Colletotrichum sp. (4-8%)  and Fusarium sp. (4-12%) were detected in moist blotter and PDA methods under unsterilized and sterilized seed lots variously in all varieties tested. Rhizopus sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Fusarium sp. were recorded in few varieties. Macrophomina sp. was present as externally as well as internally seed borne. 

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11

Title : Prevalence of Green gram leaf blight caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

Authors : D. H. Tandel, A. N. Sabalpara, R.C.Patel, V.R. Patel

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Abstract :

During the survey, occurrence of leaf blight disease in greengram was noticed in serious proportion inflecting heavy losses around Navsari, Gujarat, India. Cultivar GM-2K-5 was found more severely affected in the area during kharif and summer seasons. The repeated isolations from infected leaves revealed the association of Macrophomina sp., which was identified as Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. The pathogenicity was proved by different artificial inoculation methods with positive results.

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12

Title : Characterizations on interval valued fuzzy ideals in BF-algebras

Authors : S. Muhammad, A. Rehman, M. Zulfiqar, M. Idrees

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In this paper, we introduced the notion of -interval valued fuzzy ideals in BF-algebra, where ,  are any one of , , ,  and investigate some of their related properties. We prove that an interval valued fuzzy set  of a BF-algebra X is an interval valued fuzzy ideal of X if and only if  is an -interval valued fuzzy ideal of X. We show that an interval valued fuzzy set  of a BF-algebra X is an -interval valued fuzzy ideal of X if and only if for any [0.5, 0.5] ˂  ≤ [1, 1],  = {x Î X | (x) ≥ } is an ideal of X. Finally we prove that the intersection and union of any family of -interval valued fuzzy ideals of a BF-algebra X are an - interval valued fuzzy ideal of X.

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13

Title : Assessment of the environmental impacts of marble quarrying on surface water at Kwakuti, Niger state, North Central Nigeria

Authors : Ako T. A., Onoduku U. S.,Waziri S. H., Adegbe M., Chukwu J. N., Kajena C. M

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The determination of the impacts of marble quarrying on the surface water at Kwakuti was determined by assessing the physico-chemical properties of the water samples obtained from Kwakuti and its environs. The concentration of heavy metals, cations concentration, anions concentrations were determined in the laboratory. The values of the physical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS) were immediately measured on the field. The average values for the concentration of heavy metals for the five locations sampled at Kwakuti are as follows; arsenic (As) (>0.01mg/l) which conforms to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Standard Organization of Nigerian (SON) standards of 0.01mg/l, cobalt (Co) was not detected in any of the five locations and zinc (Zn) with an average concentration of 0.30mg/l still lies within the allowable limits of 3.0mg/l proposed by the WHO. These were determined by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and as shown by these values, most of the heavy metals are below the maximum allowable concentrations of WHO and SON except for lead (Pb2+) which has an average concentration of 0.42mg/l which is higher than the maximum allowable concentration of 0.01mg/l which is higher than the acceptable limits of the WHO and SON. The mean concentration values of the cations are found to be as follows; calcium (Ca2+), 46.48mg/l; magnesium (Mg2+), 28.12mg/l and these values are higher than the WHO standard of 0.20mg/l. Sodium ( Na2+) has a mean value of 3.39mg/l which is an acceptable value compared to the WHO and SON standards of 200mg/l; potassium (K+) has an average concentration of 2.46mg/l and iron (Fe2+), 0.01mg/l as opposed to the Nigerian standards of 0.3mg/l. These values are all within acceptable limits except for the concentration of magnesium (Mg2+) which is quite higher than those of WHO and SON. The anions are all within the acceptable limits. Sulphate ion (SO42-) has an average value of 0.0094mg/l compared to the acceptable limits of 250mg/l while the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) has an average value of 13.8mg/l. Nitrate ion (NO3-) has a mean concentration of 5.0mg/l well under the limits of 50mg/l, phosphate ion (PO42-) has a mean value of 0.025 and chlorite (Cl-) is at 22.33mg/l compared to the acceptable limits of 250mg/l. It was concluded that the major contaminants in the surface water at Kwakuti and its environs are mg2+ and pb2+. The effects of lead accumulation human health is well known and this has made the surface water in Kwakuti in no way suitable for the drinking either by humans or animals or even for other agricultural purposes such as irrigation due to high concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the water and urgent steps should be taken to provide safe drinking water to the people in Kwakuti area.

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14

Title : Study of thermal-technical parameters and experimental investigations on PV-Thermal collector

Authors : J.S. Akhatov, I.A. Yuldashev, A.S. Halimov

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This paper presents a short review on photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collectors, their design and performance evaluation, and the comparison of findings obtained by various researchers. The short review also covers a description of different designs for PV-T collectors, the results of theoretical and experimental works, focused on an optimization of technical and economical performances in terms of electrical as well as thermal outputs. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations on determination of thermal and electrical performances of PV-Thermal collector developed in Physical-Technical Institute are presented. Experimental investigations were carried out under natural conditions of Tashkent City.   

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15

Title : Diet Compositions of African Pike Hepsetus Odoe (Bloch) In Ikose/Iluju Reservoir, Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors : Adedokun, Mathew Adewale, Fawole, Olatunde O

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The Food habits and diets which Hepsetus odoe fortuitously eaten in Ikose/ Iluju Reservoir Oyo State Nigeria was investigated. A total of 90 fish specimens were examined between April 2013 and March 2014. The ratio of empty stomach among the total number examined was 9/90 (with 90% stomach contents. The species feed mostly on food of animal origin, although detritus/ substrates were also identified and its determination was not practicable. Food consumed was basically fin-fish of different genera and species including Synodontis spp 10(12.4%), Barbus sp 8(9.9%), Hepsetus odoe 3(3.7%), Mormyrids 23(28.4%), Clarids 3(3.7%), Schilbe mystus 2(2.5%), Tilapia spp 15(18.5%) and Unidentified Cichlids 17(21.0%). Generally, the relative importance of the diet components of H. odoe include Cichlids with a total of 32 individuals with the less important being Schilbe mystus with 2 units. The studied species exhibited diets shift in relation to sizes and between seasons. The filial cannibalism tendencies by the fish are more pronounced in male specimens than female. H. odoe only consumed prey ≤ 20 cm SL., and the weight of food items in the stomach on the average was 1.85% of the body weight. There exist instances of prey-predator lengths ratio less than 40% and ratio of prey-predato lengths averaged 17.9%.

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